The Polish capital Warsaw stretches on both sides of the Vistula. By far the largest city in Poland, it is also the country’s most important economic and cultural center and an important transport hub. The city, which was destroyed by the Germans in World War II after the Warsaw Uprising, was rebuilt. The exemplary reconstructed old town is now a UNESCO World Heritage Site.
Warsaw, in Polish Warszawa, covers an area of around 500 km² and has more than 1.7 million residents.
The 1047 km long Vistula is the main river in Poland. It flows into the Gdańsk Bay and is connected to the Oder and the Western Bug by canals. After the construction of 30 barrages and two dams, the river is navigable over a length of 941 km.
According to animalerts, Warsaw is the political center of the country as the seat of the president, the government, the parliament (Sejm) and the highest courts of the country as well as a Catholic archbishop and bishop.
In addition, there are numerous scientific and cultural institutions in the city, in particular the Polish Academy of Sciences, a university, a technical and various other colleges and theological academies.
The outstanding importance of Warsaw as a cultural center is also underlined by the more than 25 theaters, the many museums, the national library, archives and publishers. Warsaw has an international book fair, hosts the CHOPIN Festival and the international festival for contemporary music “Warsaw Autumn”.
Leading branches of industry in the most diverse economic center of Poland are mechanical engineering, electrotechnical, electronic and pharmaceutical industries. Warsaw is also home to a stainless steel smelter, automobile and tractor construction, as well as the food, clothing, graphics and cosmetics industries.
Warsaw is also a major transport hub with five train stations and Okecie International Airport, located in the south-west of the city. The first metro line has been in service since 1995.
The city center is on the left bank of the Vistula, the Praga district, which is mainly industrialized, is on the right.
The city, which was largely destroyed in the Second World War, was rebuilt after 1945 from a modern urban planning perspective. The old town with its exquisitely restored historical buildings has been a UNESCO World Heritage Site for several years.
The old town has city walls from the 14th / 15th centuries. Century, the city gates (barbican) date from the 16th century.
The Schlossplatz is one of the most important architectural monuments in the old town with the baroque column of King SIGISMUND III. (1643/44) and the baroque royal palace, an originally Gothic castle. The rectangular Old Market with reconstructed Renaissance and Baroque houses and the New Market with also renovated houses from the 18th and 19th centuries are also famous. Numerous Gothic and Baroque churches, including St. John’s Cathedral, monasteries and aristocratic palaces, complete the historical cityscape.
The beginnings of Warsaw go back to the 10th century. The craftsmen and merchants’ settlement received German town charter in 1339, became Polish crown property in 1526 and has been the permanent meeting place of the Sejm since 1569/70 and a royal residence from 1596.
Warsaw has been the capital of the Republic of Poland since 1918.
The German Wehrmacht occupied Warsaw at the beginning of the Second World War and built the notorious Jewish ghetto in the north-western center . Around 500,000 people were crammed into the area, which was only 4 km² in size and sealed off by a wall from 1941. Starting in 1942, more than 300,000 Jews were deported from the ghetto to the extermination camps. To prevent the final liquidation of the ghetto, the remaining Jews rose up against their tormentors in 1943. The uprising was suppressed just as bloodily as the Warsaw uprising, which was directed against the German occupation forces in 1944. After its suppression, SS units almost completely devastated the city.
The Channel Islands – holiday destination and tax haven
The Channel Islands, English Channel Islands, French Îles Normandes form a group of islands, islets and rocks off the coast of northern France in the English Channel. Only the Roches Douvres and the Îles Chausey belong to France. All other islands have been under the British Crown since 1204 and have self-government represented by a state parliament. The largest islands are Jersey and Guernsey.
The mild climate influenced by the Gulf Stream allows the cultivation of vegetables, fruits and flowers on the islands. The native breeds of cattle provide high milk yields. Tourism plays an important role, benefiting from the beautiful sandy beaches and good cuisine.
For the past 30 years, Jersey and Guernsey have become developed into a major international financial center with around 100 bank branches and more than 37,000 letterbox companies. The reasons for this are the tax rates, such as income and withholding taxes, which are extremely low and favor the formation of large fortunes.
From Britain in went 18th and 19th century, the Industrial Revolution made. As a pioneer in the transition from manufacture to industrial production and as ruler of the British Empire, a colonial empire, Great Britain achieved a leadership role in world economy and politics.
Favorable conditions were a high population, good traffic conditions, sufficient raw materials from the colonies, among others, and an efficient money market. In addition, there were groundbreaking inventions in the technical field: in 1712 the first steam pumping machine was used for draining water in a coal mine.
In 1769 JAMES WATT had his steam engine patented.
The revolution towards industrial mass production first took place in the textile industry after the invention of the spinning machine and the mechanical loom.
The second phase of the industrial revolution then took place in iron and steel production. The railroad gave the whole age and the landscape a new face.
With the progress of production in Great Britain went the impoverishment of large parts of the industrial working class. The misery and exploitation, especially of the women and children who worked in the factories and mines, was proverbial. However, since the mid- 19th century, workers organized in trade unions have been fighting for an improvement in their situation.
In the 20th century,especially in the wake of the two world wars, new economic centers emerged in the world and the British Empire fell apart piece by piece. Great Britain therefore had to cede its economic leadership role to new economic powers in America and Asia.
In the 1980’s and 1990’s this was associated with economic recession, inflation and a fundamental structural change in industry.