Urho Kekkonen
European Countries

History of Finland Part VII

Economic crisis in the 1980s The financial situation in Finland was unstable in the 1980s and early 1990s. After unemployment reached nine percent in 1978, an economic crisis plan was implemented that brought tax relief to business and a series of devaluations. The results were quick. Growth in GDP was seven percent in 1979, and […]

From the autumn of 1940
European Countries

History of Finland Part VI

The Kekkonen period 1956–1981 In 1956, Urho Kekkonen was elected President of the Republic with only two electoral votes over Fagerholm. Fagerholm formed a new government, but this cracked down in 1957. In 1958, Fagerholm succeeded in forming a parliamentary government based on all the non-socialist parties and social democrats and with a majority in […]

Stiff frozen Soviet corpses in a rifle position
European Countries

History of Finland Part V

The Paasikivi period 1946–1956 When the armistice agreement with the Soviet Union was signed in 1944, the Finnish state leadership faced a number of fundamental problems. Their solution was mainly placed on Juho Kusti Paasikivi, who was appointed prime minister in November. Until he himself assumed the presidential position in March 1946, he had decisive […]

European Countries

History of Finland Part IV

The Winter Wars 1939-1940 In accordance with this attitude, Finland declared itself neutral in the outbreak of World War II in September 1939. But the German-Soviet non-attack pact of August that year had radically changed Finland’s international position, and in early October the Helsinki government faced a number of demands of the Soviet Union. On […]

From the bloody civil war of 1918
European Countries

History of Finland Part III

Independence and Civil War 1917–1918 Finland did not participate directly in World War I, but still had to bear some of the burden of the war. Russian naval units and large troop forces were proclaimed to Finnish territory and siege state in the country. The March Revolution in Petrograd in 1917 (the Russian Revolution) immediately […]

Russia attacked Finland
European Countries

History of Finland Part II

Finland as Russian Grand Principality 1808–1917 During the Napoleonic Wars, Finland’s fate was determined by Sweden’s foreign policy. When Gustav 4 Adolf refused to follow up the mainland barrier against England, Napoleon’s ally, Tsar Alexander, without declaration of war moved into Finland on February 21, 1808. At the armistice in Olkijoki in November, the army […]

The Olavinlinna castle in Savonlinna
European Countries

History of Finland Part I

Finland’s history begins with the Swedish conquest around 1150, and until 1808 the country was subject to Sweden. During the Great Nordic War, all of Finland was conquered by Russia in 1713-1716. At the peace in Nystad in 1721, Sweden had to give up Karelia with Viipuri (Viborg). A Swedish-Russian war ended with even more […]

Jean Sibelius in Sibelius Park
European Countries


Finland is a republic in Europe, farthest east in the Nordic countries. The country borders Russia in the east (1340 kilometers), Norway in the north (736 kilometers) and Sweden in the northwest (614 kilometers). In the south, the country borders the Gulf of Finland, with Estonia on the other side. Finland belongs to the Åland […]

Elk head club of soapstone, approx. 5000 years old. Finland's oldest preserved artifact.
European Countries

Prehistory of Finland

Finland’s prehistory is regarded as the time from the first people came to the country until the mid-1100s. Because of its location, Finland is characterized by varying cultural flows from Russia, Scandinavia and Central Europe throughout prehistoric times. For Nordic archeology, the country has a special significance as a communicator of northeastern cultural impulses to […]

City of Helsinki
European Countries

Contemporary History of Finland

The contemporary history of Finland is the story from around 1990 until today. Political development in the 1990s The President has traditionally held a stronger position in Finland than in any other European parliamentary democracy, except France. This is partly due to the fragmentation into several small and half-sized political parties. In addition, Finland has […]