Opium harvesting in the Pech Valley
Asian Countries


Afghanistan, Central Asia’s interior republic, bordered by Iran, Pakistan, Tajikistan, China, Uzbekistan and Turkmenistan. Throughout the Middle Ages, the area was dominated by Muslim armies and Mongol kingdoms, and it was also known from Alexander the Great ‘s time as a review area for parts of the historically important Silk Road. Afghanistan is one of […]

Bronze Age Buddhist
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History of Afghanistan

Afghanistan was an ancient part of the Indian and Persian empires, and the area was also known from Alexander the Great ‘s time as a site for parts of the historically important Silk Road. Throughout the Middle Ages, the area was dominated by Muslim armies and Mongol kingdoms. Recent Afghan history is dominated by Pashtun […]

Asian Countries

The Contemporary History of Afghanistan

War and conflict have characterized Afghanistan’s near history. In 1973, the king was deposed in a coup. In 1979, the country was invaded by the Soviet Union After the Soviet-backed Democratic Republic of Afghanistan collapsed in 1992, Afghanistan was thrown into a civil war between competing mujahedin warlords. The Islamic fundamentalist movement of the Taliban […]

The War in Afghanistan
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The War in Afghanistan IV

Military presence 2015–2017 While ISAF consisted mostly of military forces from a total of 51 countries, several of these started in 2010 to prepare for the withdrawal of their troops. Agreement between NATO and the Afghan government indicated a general pullout by the end of 2014. At the same time, US authorities were working to […]

Norwegian Rapid Response Force
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The War in Afghanistan III

Norway’s contribution Since the turn of the year 2001/2002, Norway has contributed militarily in Afghanistan, and about 7,000 Norwegians have so far participated in the war. The engagement has been justified along four lines; (1) request from the UN and the Afghan government; (2) solidarity with other NATO countries; stable Afghanistan will also have for […]

Hamid Karzai
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The War in Afghanistan II

Transitional Government and Constitutional Assembly In November / December 2001, the German government, in consultation with the UN, organized a meeting in Bonn to discuss Afghanistan’s future following the deployment of the Taliban. The meeting was dominated by the Northern Alliance, and in order to curb the opposition, it was agreed to form a provisional […]

Afghan schoolchildren in an outdoor classroom on the outskirts of Jalalabad, in Nangarhar Province, February 16, 2014.
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The War in Afghanistan I

The war in Afghanistan is the term for the political and military conflict in Afghanistan that began when the United States launched the military campaign Operation Enduring Freedom (OEF) on October 7, 2001, with a particularly heavy south. The goal was to hit al Qaeda and the Taliban. The background was the terrorist attacks against […]

opium cultivation
Asian Countries

Economy and Business in Afghanistan

Afghanistan experienced strong economic growth after international players entered the country in 2001. Gross domestic product (GDP) grew by 70 per cent after 2002. After the decline in international presence from 2014, economic growth has stagnated sharply: from 11.9 per cent in 2012 to 0.8 per cent in 2015. Corruption, acts of war and lack […]

Music in Afghanistan
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Music in Afghanistan

The music traditions in Afghanistan vary regionally and ethnically, reflecting ties to Central Asian, Oriental and Indian culture. Each ethnic group exhibits their own musical styles, especially in folk music. Hand instruments in a variety of designs, sizes and ethnic variants (robab, tanbur, dambura, dutar, dumbra) are very popular. Whistles and drums are also common. […]

The great mosque in Herat
Asian Countries

Art and Architecture in Afghanistan

From the first millennium possibly there were, during alternating dynasties, interesting encounters between Greco-Roman, Indian and Buddhist art, in Afghanistan, especially in what is called the Gandhara period. There are still remains of Buddhist art and architecture, though much was destroyed by the Taliban. The anti-hostile regime worked hard against the country’s visual arts, both […]