Texas is a state in the southern United States, in the group of states of the Southwestern Center. The area is 695 thousand square kilometers (second place after Alaska). The population is 22.46 million people (2004), including 80% urban (fourth place after California, New York, Pennsylvania). The administrative center is Austin. Important cities and economic centers: Houston, Dallas, Fort Worth, San Antonio. Major rivers: Rio Grande, Pecos River, Sabine River, Red River, Colorado. See counties in Texas.
Texas borders Oklahoma to the northeast, Arkansas and Louisiana to the east, New Mexico to the west, and Mexico to the southwest.
A lowland (80-100 km) runs along the coast of the Gulf of Mexico in the southeast, gradually rising in the center and southwest of the state. Then the Great Plains spread, in the southern part of which the Edwards Plateau (up to 835 m). The Llano Estacado plateau (up to 1200 m) is located to the west. Further to the west are the spurs of the Rocky Mountains (up to 2665 m high). In the Trans-Pecos Mountains in the far west is the highest point in the state – Guadalupe Peak (2667 m). In the southwest, the Rio Grande is the boundary between Texas and Mexico. In the state, isolated areas with savanna-type vegetation and oak-pine forests have been preserved. Reservoirs are used for irrigation. Diverse, fairly fertile soils.
- AbbreviationFinder: Introduction to the state of Texas, covering commonly used acronyms and the list of main cities and town in Texas.
The climate is dry in the north and west, warm and humid in the southeast. In the area of the High Plains, droughts occur quite often; in the valley of the river. Red frequent tornadoes.
Major transport hub. Main seaports: Houston, Beaumont, Port Arthur, Corpus Christi. Large reservoirs (on the Colorado River). International airports (in The Dalles, Houston). About 70% of the US oil is produced in the state. Large gas fields. Uranium ores are being mined in the Mexican Lowland. Other minerals: polymetallic ores, coal, natural gas, sulfur, salt, helium. The leader of the industry and agriculture of the USA. Main industries: oil refining and chemical. Petrochemistry (Port Arthur, Houston). Manufacture of synthetic resins, rubber, plastics, fertilizers, acids and alkalis. Mechanical engineering (production of equipment for the oil and gas and chemical industries, radio electronics, shipbuilding). Houston is the center of the US oil business. Aerospace (Fort Worth, Dallas). Non-ferrous metallurgy (especially the production of aluminum and magnesium – Port Lavaca, Corpus Christi). Boards of many large corporations. Enterprises of the food, clothing industry, metalworking. Agriculture on irrigated lands (first place in the country in cotton production). They grow wheat, sorghum, corn, vegetables, forage grasses, peanuts (first place in the country for sorghum, peanuts and rice). Fruit growing (citrus). In the west of the state, grazing (first place in the number of cattle, first place in the number of sheep and angora goats). peanut (first place in the country for sorghum, peanuts and rice). Fruit growing (citrus). In the west of the state, grazing (first place in the number of cattle, first place in the number of sheep and angora goats). peanut (first place in the country for sorghum, peanuts and rice). Fruit growing (citrus). In the west of the state, grazing (first place in the number of cattle, first place in the number of sheep and angora goats).
Large scientific and cultural center. Lots of universities, colleges (26 in Houston alone). Opera houses, symphony orchestras, ballet troupe, museums, theaters.
In ancient times, representatives of the Indian culture “mound builders” lived in what is now Texas, and in the early 16th century, the Apache and Comanche Indians lived. The Spaniards visited the territory of Texas in 1528 (expedition of A. Caves de Vaca). In 1541, F. Coronado ‘s detachment surveyed these lands. In 1685, the French, led by R. La Salem, founded the first fort. In the 17th century, Texas became part of the Spanish colony of New Spain. In 1820, M. Austin organized American settlements in Texas, having received permission from the Spaniards, who then owned Mexico. In 1821, Americans began settling Texas lands (“Texas fever”) with 300 settlers. By the middle of the 18th century, the Spaniards had studied in detail the territory of the future Texas. After the Louisiana Purchase In 1803, American expansion began in the region, and American planters began to settle in Texas. In 1835, American settlers rebelled in Texas against the Mexican government (the number of settlers from the United States by that time approached 30,000). This ended in 1836 with the declaration of Texas as an independent republic. In the same year, the city of Houston was founded (named after the President of the Republic of Texas S. Houston). In 1840, the village of Aurora was founded on the shores of the Gulf of Mexico (later Port Arthur, a major deep-water port). In 1845, the American government officially announced the inclusion of Texas in the United States (became part of the United States as a slave state). In 1846, the southwestern border of Texas was finally drawn along the Rio Grande.
During the Civil War of 1861-1865, the state was part of the Confederation. Racial discrimination remained a characteristic feature of public life for a long time, and the Ku Klux Klan was active in the state. In the early 20th century, oil exploration began in Texas (1901). In 1930, the largest oil fields were found in the east of the state, thanks to this state, it was possible to survive the years of the Great Depression relatively painlessly. In 1963, US President John F. Kennedy was assassinated in Texas. In the second half of the 20th century, livestock farms began to play a leading role in the Texas economy, which gradually became larger. Cattle were driven to the railroad along the famous Chisholm Trail. Racial discrimination remained a major political issue in Texas well into the 1960s. The fall in oil prices in the 1980s greatly shattered the state’s economy (the oil business has long been a major part of income). Texas remains the largest agricultural state, being the leader in oil refining in the country, in the cities of 80% of the population (especially in the Dallas-Fort Worth and Houston-Galveston-Brazoria metropolitan areas). Among the attractions: Chamizal National Monument (a museum complex in El Paso in honor of the end of the border dispute between the United States and Mexico). Historical Museum of Port Arthur. Port Arthur is the birthplace of the famous singer J. Joplin. Biographies of US presidents are associated with TexasL. Johnson, J. Bush Sr. and J. Bush Jr.