Arizona, a state in the southwestern United States. Area 295.2 thousand km 2. Population over 5.9 million (2005). The administrative center is Phoenix. Other major cities: Tucson, Mesa It borders New Mexico to the east, Mexico to the south, and California and Nevada to the west. A significant part of the state is desert (Painted Desert, Gila Deser, Sonora Desert). In the north of the state is the Colorado Plateau , cut by a canyon of rivers. The Grand Canyon, a unique natural monument, is the largest river in the state of Colorado. See counties in Arizona.
The climate is subtropical dry continental, with mild snowy winters. Developed electronics industry. Mining is underway (gold, silver, zinc, uranium, molybdenum). The state contains more than half of the nation’s copper reserves. The main agricultural crop is cotton. Sheep breeding is developed.
- AbbreviationFinder: Introduction to the state of Arizona, covering commonly used acronyms and the list of main cities and town in Arizona.
The territory of modern Arizona has belonged to Spain since 1539. In 1690-1711 Jesuit missionary Eusebio Francisco Kino preached here among the Indians and taught them about agriculture. In 1821, Arizona was ceded to Mexico, in 1848, as a result of the war with Mexico, most of it was captured by the Americans. In 1848, at the end of the war with Mexico, the territory was captured by the United States. Long wars with the Apache Indians ended only in 1886 with their surrender. Arizona became a state on February 14, 1912, becoming the 48th state of the United States. After the Second World War, industrial construction began, the leading industry was electronics (concentrated in Phoenix and its environs). In the 1970s, population growth increased due to the warm Arizona climate and the availability of free jobs.
Attractions include: Petrified Forest National Park (Petrified Forest), Painted Desert (Painted Desert, “Painted Desert”), Devil’s Canyon (Diablo, 225 feet deep), Arizona Crater, Lake Mead, National Saguaro National Park, which features the Saguaro cactus, Santa Catalina Ski Center, one of the largest ski resorts in the southern United States.
Navajo National Monument
According to archeological excavations, northern Arizona was first inhabited by humans around 1200 AD. The original cultures left behind the remains of settlements and numerous artifacts. An excellent proof of the age of local buildings are, for example, old tree trunks, from whose annual rings it is possible to know when they were felled and therefore also when the building was built.
There were three ancient Indian villages in the area – Betatakin, Keet Seel and Inscription House, whose remains now attract the attention of many tourists. The villages were built here around 1250 by the Kayenta Anasazi Indian tribe, who, however, lived here for only about 50 years. Due to the lack of groundwater and great heat, they were forced to leave the pueblo and find a new refuge. Today, all of these villages are protected by the state as the Navajo National Monument, which was declared here in 1909.
The area was named after the Navajo tribe because after about 100 years of abandonment, these people moved here, built new villages, started families and settled permanently. Although they came from Canada, they eventually began to consider the area their homeland and treated it in the same way. The Navajo Indians even named the original inhabitants of the place, as the name Anasazi comes from the Navajo language and could be translated as “ancestors” or “those who were here before.” So although the area has little in common with the Navajo Indians, it proudly bears their name because they have followed the original culture and repopulated the place.
You will come across Indians in this vast area today, but there are not as many as before. They were oppressed and harassed by white immigrants and settlers who claimed their land. This resulted in a series of disagreements and struggles between the two cultures that lasted for many years. In the end, the Indians received a guarantee of local land in the form of a large Indian reservation.
Among the most visited places in the park are the ruins of Puebla Betatakin, which is located at the bottom of a large canyon. Above the ruins rises a huge rock overhang, which hides the individual houses of the pueblo, which are literally crammed together. Above the village you can reach a simple 1.6 km long walk from the visitor center. You will walk to the Betatakin Overlook, located at the top of the canyon opposite the rock overhangs, where you can use binoculars to see the entire village. In the interest of preserving this monument, no tourist sign leads directly to the houses, but it is possible to obtain the necessary permit in the Visitor Center and go on an organized expedition to the pueblo. However, the number of permits granted is considerably limited.
The second pueblo Keet Seel is also worth seeing, but the third village Inscription House was inaccessible to tourists due to its poor condition. The trail leading to it is officially canceled today. We recommend a visit to these villages to all those who are interested in Native American cultures and want to get acquainted with the early settlement of the area and the way of life at that time.