Parties and organizations
The only party until 1990 was the CPSU; It was only with the deletion of their claim to leadership from the constitution on March 14, 1990 that the prerequisites for party pluralism were created. As a result, numerous new parties emerged at Union and Republic level. The social organizations which until 1990 served the total coverage and mobilization of all population groups included, inter alia. the youth and children’s organizations of the KP (“Komsomol” and “Association of Pioneers”), the union federation, which is dependent on the state party and has an organizational monopoly, as well as professional and sports associations. The trade union federation, which is subdivided into 28 industrial associations with basic company organizations, was of particular importance. He administered the state social security, was responsible for recreational and tourism facilities, monitored compliance with occupational health and safety, took part in the election of state bodies, had the right to initiate legislation, was involved in drawing up national economic plans and had the right to participate in the establishment of work rules and standards at company level as well as when awarding premiums and living space. In December 1990 the formation of independent trade unions was regulated by law.
The administrative-territorial structure of the Soviet Union consisted of 15 union republics, 20 autonomous republics, eight autonomous areas, ten autonomous counties, six regions (Kraj), 114 areas (oblast), 3,217 districts (rayon), 2,200 cities, 603 boroughs, 4,042 settlements and 43,095 village soviets.
According to politicsezine, Soviet constitutional law regarded the 15 Union Republics (Soviet Socialist Republics, SSR) formally as sovereign states (including the right to withdraw from the Union). In fact, however, they were subordinate territorial units of the central authority with limited powers. The Union had extensive powers (foreign, defense and foreign trade policy, changes to the borders of the republic, state security, framework legislation in the legal system, budget, tax and currency sovereignty, transport, postal, telecommunications and insurance). Legislation in the areas not reserved for the Union was exercised by the legislature of the SSR, which was essentially organized in the same way as at Union level. The executive power lay with the respective Council of Ministers. Certain ministries were subordinate to the relevant Union ministries, while other departments were only subordinate to the Council of Ministers of the relevant SSR (e.g. social welfare, public order, transport, regional trade, municipal facilities). Nationally heterogeneous SSRs were further subdivided. Depending on the numerical strength of a nationality, there were Autonomous Soviet Socialist Republics (ASSR), autonomous areas and autonomous counties. The legislative and administrative tasks in the various regional administrative levels were carried out by the Soviets of People’s Deputies and their executive committees. Depending on the numerical strength of a nationality, there were Autonomous Soviet Socialist Republics (ASSR), autonomous areas and autonomous counties. The legislative and administrative tasks at the various regional administrative levels were carried out by the Soviets of People’s Deputies and their executive committees. Depending on the numerical strength of a nationality, there were Autonomous Soviet Socialist Republics (ASSR), autonomous areas and autonomous counties. The legislative and administrative tasks at the various regional administrative levels were carried out by the Soviets of People’s Deputies and their executive committees.
Soviet | Union: Union republics
|Union Republics of the Soviet Union (1990)|
|republic||Area (in km 2)||Ew. (in millions)||Ew. (per km2)||capital city|
|Armenian SSR||29 800||3.29||110Eri||Yerevan|
|Azerbaijani SSR 1)||86 600||7.13||82||Baku|
|Estonian SSR||45 100||1.58||35||Tallinn|
|Georgian SSR 2)||69,000||5.46||78||Tbilisi|
|Kyrgyz SSR||198 500||4.37||22nd||Bishkek|
|Latvian SSR||64 600||2.69||42||Riga|
|Lithuanian SSR||65 200||3.72||57||Vilnius|
|Moldovan SSR||33 700||4.36||129||Kishinev|
|Russian SFSR 3)||17 075 400||148.04||9||Moscow|
|Tajik SSR 4)||143 100||5.25||37||Dushanbe|
|Turkmen SSR||488 100||3.62||7th||Ashkhabad|
|Ukrainian SSR||603 700||51.84||86||Kiev|
|Uzbek SSR 5)||447 400||20.32||45||Tashkent|
|Belarusian SSR||207 600||10.26||49||Minsk|
|Soviet Union||22 403 100 6)||288.62||13th||Moscow|
|1) In it Nakhichevans ASSR (Autonomous Socialist. Soviet Republic) and AG (Autonomous Region) Nagorno-Karabakh.2) In it Abkhaz. ASSR, Ajar. ASSR, South Osset. AG.
3) In it 16 ASSR (Bashkir., Buryat., Dagestan., Jakut., Kalmück., Karel., Mordvin., North Osset., Tatar., Chuvash., Tuvin., Udmurt., The Kabardines and Balkars, the Komi, the Mari, the Chechens and Ingush), 5 AG (Adygeisches, Khakass., Jewish, Gorno-Altaisk, the Karachay and Circassian), 10 autonomous districts (the Khanty and Mansi, the Evenks, the Yamal-Nenets, the Komi-Permyaks, the Koryaks, the Nenets, the Chukchi; Aginskoje, Taimyr, Ust-Ordynski).
4) Therein AG Bergbadachschan.
5) In it Karakalpak. ASSR.
6) Including the areas of the White Sea and the Azov Sea.
Although the judiciary was separated into a federal and a judicial system of the Union Republics, the Supreme Court of the Soviet Union, elected by the Supreme Soviet for five years, had special management powers over the subordinate courts. In addition to the final decision in the system of Soviet jurisdiction and the handling of particularly important and difficult cases in the first instance, he made fundamental decisions and provided explanations of the law. Supreme courts also had the SSR and the ASSR. Like the courts of the lower administrative level subordinate to them (people’s and regional courts), these were courts of first and second instance for civil, criminal and – to a limited extent – administrative matters; Judges were elected by the relevant soviets (directly at the local level by the citizens) for a period of five years and could be recalled at any time. Military tribunals were special courts with jurisdiction over the Supreme Court of the Soviet Union. The State Arbitrage, a judicial administrative body, was responsible for settling economic disputes between state-owned companies. Labor law disputes fell within the competence of company arbitration commissions, external trade union committees and the people’s courts. The comradeship courts were outside the state jurisdiction in collectives and social organizations. The public prosecutor’s office was organized centrally and was only responsible to the Supreme Soviet; at its head was the General Prosecutor of the Soviet Union, appointed for seven years by the Supreme Soviet of the Soviet Union. It was not only the prosecution and prosecution authority, but also exercised comprehensive legal oversight over the administration, the judiciary, the economy, and so on within the framework of “general supervision”.
The coat of arms (officially introduced in 1924) showed hammer and sickle in front of a globe floating above the rising sun and the red, gold-lined, five-pointed star above the globe. This representation was surrounded by ears of grain that were held together by a red ribbon. The ribbon bore the slogan “Workers of all countries, unite” in the languages of the 15 Union Republics.