European Countries

Soviet Union (1922-1991) Part 1

Soviet Union, 1922–91 existing state in Eastern Europe and North Asia, officially Russian Soyuz Sowjetskich Sozialistitscheskich Respublik, Sojuz Sovetskich Socialističeskich Respublik, abbreviation SSSR, Cyrillic CCCP, German Union of Soviet Socialist Republics, abbreviation USSR, former federal state of 15 Union Republics; With 22.4 million km 2 (of which 5.57 million km 2 in Europe), the Soviet Union was the largest country in the world in terms of area.

With (1990) 288.6 million residents it was ranked 3rd among the most populous countries (after China and India); The capital was Moscow. The Soviet Union bordered the Black Sea to the west, Romania, Hungary, Czechoslovakia and Poland, the Baltic Sea to the northwest, Finland and Norway, the Arctic Ocean to the north, the Pacific Ocean to the east, and the Sea of ​​Japan to the southeast, to North Korea and China, to the south to China, Mongolia and Afghanistan and to the southwest to Iran and Turkey.

Political system

According to physicscat, the Soviet Union was a multinational communist union state, which saw itself as the dictatorship of the proletariat and from the beginning showed totalitarian features of various forms. While in the Stalinist period one can speak of an autocratic variant, in the 1920s and after Stalin’s death under the sign of “collective leadership” an oligarchic variant of the dictatorship was practiced, in which the political bureau of the CPSU was the center of power. The latter corresponded to the Leninist model of a party dictatorship (Marxism-Leninism).

1936 was the leading role of the Communist All Union Party (WKP [B], since 1952 Communist Party of the Soviet Union, CPSU) has been anchored in all areas of government and society and thus a one-party system has also been anchored in the constitution. The monopoly position of the CPSU with a close (also personal) amalgamation of party and state led to the expansion of a centrally managed, bureaucratic economic and administrative system based on state property in all economic sectors. The party exercised its management and control function at all levels of society through extensive rights of instruction, the right to propose the composition of state organs and a personnel policy that it dominated. State power was exercised through a system of soviets (councils) of people’s deputies based on the Leninist principle of democratic centralism (Council system). In view of the CPSU’s monopoly of power, however, the Soviets were not independent decision-making bodies; rather, they carried out the decisions made by the party at the same or higher organizational level.

Constitutional order

The Soviet Union had three constitutions: The founding constitution of 1924 provided for a pyramid of soviets (only elected directly at the base, otherwise resulting from indirect elections) as the bearer of state power. It was headed by a relatively seldom convened Congress of the Soviets, which appointed a central executive committee to carry out ongoing legislative tasks. With the Stalinist constitution of 1936 a uniform hierarchy of soviets directly elected at all levels was created. According to the constitution of 1977 (revised several times), the Supreme Soviet (Verkhovny Soviet), consisting of two chambers with equal rights, the Union Soviet (Soviet Soyusa) and the Nationality Soviet (Soviet Nazionalnostej), functioned formally as the highest organ of state power. However, it rarely met and passed few laws. The reconciliation of interests between the state and nationalities intended with the bicameral system remained ineffective as a result of the pioneering competence of the CPSU. The right to vote for the Supreme Soviet, which also applied to the Soviets in all subordinate units, was an absolute majority vote on the basis of unitary constituencies. Since only the CPSU and the social organizations closely associated with it had the right to nominate candidates, they had elections – especially since that time which also applied to the Soviets in all subordinate units, was an absolute majority vote on the basis of unitary constituencies. Since only the CPSU and the social organizations closely associated with it had the right to nominate candidates, they had elections – especially since that time which also applied to the Soviets in all subordinate units, was an absolute majority vote on the basis of unitary constituencies. Since only the CPSU and the social organizations closely associated with it had the right to nominate candidates, they had elections – especially since that time Stalin’s  - pure acclamation character. The Presidium of the Supreme Soviet, which was headed by its chairman and acted as the legislature replacing parliament (ukas) and collective head of state, was of greater importance. In fact, the party’s general secretary was the most politically influential person. The executive body of the Union was the Council of Ministers (until 1946 the Council of People’s Commissars) under the direction of the Presidium and its chairman (the Prime Minister); its decrees and orders were binding for the entire territory of the Soviet Union. Formally, the Council of Ministers, which in addition to the Prime Minister, his deputies, the ministers, the chairmen of the state committees (e.g. GOSPLAN, KGB), the central bank and others central institutions also included the chairmen of the Councils of Ministers of the Union Republics.

Under M. S. Gorbachev In the course of perestroika, the constitution of 1977 was revised several times (especially on December 1, 1988, March 14, 1990 and December 26, 1990), which had an impact on the organization of the state. The Congress of People’s Deputies (2,250 members, elected for 5 years) was formed in 1989. Constitutional changes, basic questions of domestic and foreign policy and the election of the Supreme Soviet fell. The Supreme Soviet, consisting of two equal chambers, each with 271 deputies (Union and nationality Soviet) functioned as a continuously active legislative and control body. Among other things, he was responsible for the appointment of the Cabinet headed by the Prime Minister and the Attorney General of the Union and the interpretation of the law. In 1990 a president with extensive powers took over the office of head of state.

Soviet Union (1922-1991) 1