|Language||Official language Tok Pisin, Hiri Motu and English|
|Religion||Protestants (69.4%) Roman Catholic Church (27%) Indigenous faiths (animists, etc.)|
|State system||constitutional monarchy with parliamentary democracy|
|Head of State||The Queen Elizabeth II. represented by Governor General Bob Dadae|
|Head of government||James Marape|
|Currency name||Papuan Cinemas (PGK)|
|Time shift||+9 hours (in summer +8)|
|Nominal GDP (billion USD)||40.4|
|Economic growth (%)||1.8|
According to COMPUTERANNALS, Papua New Guinea (PNG) is a constitutional monarchy with a parliamentary democracy. The head of state is the British monarch, represented by the Governor-General. PNG has three levels of government: national (National Executive Council), provincial and local, and a unicameral National Parliament. PNG’s legal system is based on British common law. The ethnic composition of the population is very diverse (over 800 ethnic groups) – the most numerous ethnic groups are Melanesians – Papuans. According to the World Bank’s latest “Doing Business 2021” report, PNG ranked 120th out of 190, maintaining a significantly better score than previous years for the second year running. PNG is a developing country with large disparities between regions, often lacking basic infrastructure. Some places are only accessible by air. Crime is high, so it is advisable to find a trusted local partner. PNG is the most important partner in the Pacific for both the Czech Republic and the EU. The relations between PNG and the EU are also important because of the common interest in solving global challenges, especially in the field of climate and environmental protection. The EU, in cooperation with some Czechoslovak Republics, continues its development projects, focused primarily on agriculture, water management, infrastructure and small business support.
This Summary Territorial Information is processed for a country that is so-called accredited. The information is provided in an abbreviated form.
Basic information about the territory
- System of governance and political tendencies in the country
- Foreign policy of the country
The system of governance and political tendencies in the country
The independent state of Papua New Guinea (PNG) is a constitutional monarchy with a parliamentary democracy. The head of state is the British monarch, represented by the Governor-General. The title of monarch is hereditary, the Governor-General is elected by the PNG Parliament and performs a largely ceremonial function. PNG has three levels of government: national, provincial and local. The main executive body – the National Executive Council is robust (32 ministers) and the unicameral National Parliament has 111 MPs. Most of them are elected in their constituencies primarily on a personal and ethnic basis, not according to political affiliation. The electoral system is majoritarian, winners often receive less than 15% of the vote, and party loyalty is usually not very strong. “Drag and drop” of MPs in an effort to gain a parliamentary majority is typical. PNG’s legal system is based on British common law, the judiciary is independent of the government. There are three levels of courts, the highest court is the Supreme Court. The current government continues its long-term orientation to ensure the country’s development through the use of mineral resources. However, the extraction of resources cannot be done without foreign investment, especially from Australia and China, which further deepens the country’s economic and political dependence on its main partners. PNG is expecting a general election this year, which was originally scheduled to take place between 11 and 24 June 2022, but will be postponed by 2 weeks.
Foreign policy of the country
The permanent priority of PNG’s external activities remains relations with Australia, which historically and due to its geographical proximity is PNG’s main foreign partner, as well as with the countries of the Pacific region, East Asian economies and the USA. China is increasingly pushing its way into this group, mainly through investments in infrastructure projects. As a result of Chinese investments in the region, the involvement of the US in the South Pacific is also growing, as it joined the originally Australian project to modernize the naval base on Manus Island, but the implementation of the project runs into the PRC’s interest in stopping it and possibly taking over the entire base. Within the framework of the current possibilities, the activity of investors from New Zealand is also growing, whose entities have also participated in some infrastructure development programs. Relations with the EU, particularly through the EU DEL in Port Moresby, focus on development programs and trade. The relations between PNG and the EU are also important because of the common interest in solving global challenges, especially in the field of climate and environmental protection.
According to the latest estimates, 8.78 million people live in Papua New Guinea, of which 65% are economically active. The population density is 19 inhabitants/km2, the average annual increase is 2.2%. The ethnic composition of the population is very varied, over 800 ethnic groups live in the entire territory of PNG, the most numerous ethnic groups are Melanesians – Papuans, followed by Negritos, Micronesians or Polynesians. The main official languages are English and the local Tok Pisin (Pidgin) or Hiri Motu, but otherwise, as for ethnicity, it has its own language. By religion, the inhabitants of PNG are most often Protestant (69.4%) or members of the Roman Catholic Church (27%), indigenous beliefs (animism, etc.) are practiced by the inhabitants at the same time, but overall these are slowly on the decline.