European Countries

Moscow Cityscape Part 2

Capital of the Soviet Union: After the October Revolution (1917) and the civil war, a radical redesign of the city began (first general development plan 1918-23, including by Shtusev). Moscow was a center of constructivist architecture until around 1935. The major construction projects of the 1920s and 30s included administration buildings (Ministry of Agriculture, 1929–33, von Schtusev; Ministry of Commerce, 1925–27, by Boris Michailowitsch Velikowski, Arkady J. Langmann and Mikhail Osipovich Barschtsch; State Committee of the Russian Federation for Statistics, 1929–36, based on plans by Le Corbusier), Editorial building (“Izvestia”, 1925-27, by Grigory Borissowitsch Barchin and Mikhail Grigoryevich Barchin; “Pravda”, 1929-35, by I. A. Golossow), workers’ clubs (clubhouse of the rubber factory, 1927-29; Russakowklub, 1927-28; “Sturmvogel” shoe factory club, 1928–30, all by K. S. Melnikow). Wladimir Georgijewitsch Schuchow created the 150 m high Shabolowka transmission tower (1919-22). The »Haus am Kai« (1928–31, by Boris and Dmitri Iofan) and the new building of the State Library (formerly the Lenin Library, 1928–41, by W. A. Schchuko and Vladimir Georgievich Gelreich)) mark the transition to a Neoclassicist architectural conception shaped by Stalin: Central Theater of the Soviet Army (1934–40, by Karo Semjonowitsch Alabjan and Vasily Nikolajewitsch Simbirzew), General Military Academy of the Russian Armed Forces (1931–37, by Lev Vladimirovich Rudnew), Hotel Moskva (1935 and 1976, including by Shtusev; demolished in 2004, new building opened in 2012 and 2014, respectively).

A profound break in urban development began in the 1930s with the implementation of the general development plan from 1935; Moscow was subsequently expanded into a representative capital with wide squares (1935–36 new Manege Square), monumental street axes (for example Lenin, Kutuzov and Leningrad Prospect) and ensembles in the typical, neoclassical architecture of the Stalin era. The historically determined ring-shaped structure of the city plan with the radial arterial roads was retained, numerous churches were demolished, streets were widened (for example Gorkistraße, today Twerer Straße), historical buildings were relocated. It was not until the 1930s that Moscow developed into a modern city with an efficient transport infrastructure and enormous spatial growth.

After the Second World War, six high-rise buildings in the so-called confectioner’s style were built along the garden ring (including Hotel Leningradskaja, 1948–53; Hotel Ukraina, 1950–56). The building of the Lomonosov University (1948–52) was erected on the Lenin Mountains, the steep bank of the Moskva (today Sparrow Hills) in the southwest of the city. From the second half of the 1950s, large industrial estates grew on the periphery of the city, residential quarters for the steadily growing population. New highways were laid (for example Komsomol Prospect, 1958–65 as a connection to the Luzhniki Sports Park and the university campus). 1964–69 was followed by the Kalinin Prospectus (now Nowy Arbat [New Arbat]) by M. W. Possochin) with the former Comecon high-rise building (1969), to which part of the residential areas on the actual Arbat (»Alter Arbat«) fell victim.

According to historyaah, the emphatically factual design of Moscow architecture from the 1960s shows, among other things. the Congress Palace in the Kremlin (1959–61, from Possochin). For a long time, the huge housing estates in the outskirts, built in the 1970s and 80s, were insufficiently developed in terms of their transport and supply infrastructure; With numerous social buildings, especially administrative buildings (»White House«, 1965–81, by Dmitri Nikolajewitsch Chechulin and Pawel Pawlowitsch Schteller, since 1991 House of the Government of the Russian Federation, previously House of the Soviet of the RSFSR), commercial complexes, large-scale cultural buildings, Hotels (Rossija, 1962-69, from Chechulin, demolished in 2006), attempts were made to meet the needs of the constantly growing metropolis and tourism. Some buildings show interesting solutions of modern architecture (Children’s Music Theater, 1974–79, by Alexander A. Welikanow and Wladilen D. Krasilnikow; Theater an der Taganka, 1973–85, Alexander W. Anissimow, Juri P. Gnedowski, B. I. Taranzew).

Capital of Russia: In the building boom of the 1990s, apartments and offices, banks and hotels built prestige architecture behind gutted old building facades, the historic shopping streets and districts experienced a rapid revival; numerous historical buildings have been reconstructed and renovated, such as the Cathedral of Our Lady of Kazan (1625–30; destroyed 1934; rebuilt 1990–93); the Resurrection Gate (16th century; demolished 1929–31; rebuilt 1993–95) on Red Square; Christ the Savior Cathedral (1839–83, blown up by K. A. Thon, 1931; rebuilt 1994–2000).

For the 850-year celebration in 1997 of the Manege Square was redesigned (with fountains and sculptures by Zurab Tsereteli, underground shopping mall was built). An approximately 60 m high sculpture of Peter I the Great by Tsereteli waserected in the Moscow River. In 1998, construction of a new office and business town (Moscow City) began on the western outskirts of the inner city on the site of a former industrial area, which provides around 2 million m 2 of new space for multifunctional use. A distinctive symbol of Moscow City is the “Federation Tower” (built 2005-17, architects Sergei Tchoban, Peter Schweger), which reaches a height of 373 m. The 354 m high Oko Tower (Architects Skidmore, Owings & Merrill) and the 339 m high Mercury Tower (architect F. Williams).

On the old radial arterial roads (today urban area) one laid in the 14th-16th centuries. Century a ring of fortified monasteries, especially Andronikowkloster (1360) with Savior Cathedral (1420-27), Simonowkloster (1379), Novospasski monastyr (New Savior Monastery, 1462), Novodevichy Monastery (New Maiden Monastery , from 1524, UNESCO World Heritage Site) with the cathedral Smolensk Mother of God (1550) and Donskoi monastery (1591) with a small (1591–93) and five-domed large cathedral (1684–93) as well as the Danilov monastery (founded in 1272; with the father’s cathedral, 1560; gate church, 17th century; Trinity cathedral, 18th century; Convent buildings, among others, were restored for the seat of the Patriarch of Moscow in 1983-88).

Moscow Cityscape 2