General information about Nicaragua
According to allcitycodes, the official name is the Republic of Nicaragua (Republica de Nicaragua). Located in Central America. The area is 129.49 km2. Population 5.023 million people The official language is Spanish. The capital is the city of Managua (1 million people). National holiday – Independence Day on September 15. The monetary unit is the golden cordoba. Member of the UN (since 1945), OAS (since 1948) and their specialized organizations, Leningrad NPP (since 1975), CAOR (since 1961), Non-Aligned Movement, etc.
Geography of Nicaragua
Nicaragua is located between 11° and 15° north latitude and 83° and 87° west longitude. It borders Honduras to the north and Costa Rica to the south. It is washed by the Pacific Ocean in the west and the Caribbean Sea in the east. Coastline length approx. 1000 km. In the northern part of the Pacific coast, the Gulf of Fonseca juts out. The central part is occupied by volcanic highlands (maximum height 2438 m), in the northeast it descends to the most extensive alluvial lowland in Central America – the Mosquito Coast, the southwestern slope descends to a low depression with the largest freshwater lakes in the subregion. Nicaragua is prone to tropical hurricanes, earthquakes, and cones of active volcanoes rise in the area of the lake basin. Agriculture and fisheries are adversely affected by the Pacific current of El Niño. The climate is tropical hot (average monthly temperature +25-28°C), humid (annual rainfall from 1000-1500 mm in the southwest to 2000-4000 mm and even 6500 mm in the northeast). The rivers of the Caribbean are long, full-flowing, and navigable in the lowlands. The rivers of the Pacific Basin are short and rough. Nicaragua has a variety of tropical ecosystems ranging from wet forests on the Atlantic to dry forests on the Pacific coast. Forests occupy 52.5% of the territory, including 2.5 million hectares of wet and 600 thousand hectares of pine. Among the diversity of flora, 65 species of trees are of commercial importance, incl. mahogany and rosewood, pine, oak and cedar. In the bowels of Nicaragua there are deposits of precious, ferrous, nonferrous, and rare metals, as well as building minerals (gypsum, limestone, marble, and others). Faunistically, Nicaragua belongs to the Central American subregion of the Neotropical region. Tapirs, peccaries, broad-nosed monkeys, jaguars, armadillos are widespread. There are many birds (parrots, hummingbirds, toucans, quetzals), reptiles (poisonous snakes, iguana lizard, gilatooth) and insects.
Population of Nicaragua
Annual population growth – 2.09%; birth rate 26.98%, infant mortality 32.52 people. per 1000 newborns. Age structure of the population: 0-14 years old – 38.3%, 15-64 years old – 58.7%, 65 years and older – 3%. 75% of the adult population is literate, 28% of those who complete primary school complete secondary education. Ethnic composition: 69% Spanish-Indian mestizos, 17% whites, 9% blacks, 5% Miskito Indians, Sumo, Rama, Garifuna. In the 1980s due to the migration of Indians and blacks to Honduras, their numbers decreased; in the 1990s – stabilized. The main religion is Catholic (85%), Protestant denominations are common.
History of Nicaragua
In the pre-Columbian era, the territory of Nicaragua. inhabited by the Mosquito and Charotegi tribes, in the 6th-10th centuries. The Toltecs and Aztecs came from Mexico. In 1522, the Spanish conquest began, the indigenous population was enslaved and mostly destroyed, the Miskito Indians survived in Mosquito. In 1524 the Spaniards founded the cities of León and Cordoba. In 1573 Nicaragua became part of the captaincy general of Guatemala. From the 17th century to ser. 19th century the Caribbean coast was under the British protectorate. Revolts against Spanish rule took place in the beginning. In the 19th century, in 1821, the captaincy general proclaimed independence from Spain, and in 1822 it joined the Mexican Empire. Since 1823, Nicaragua has been part of the federation of the United Provinces of Central America. After its collapse, from April 1838 – a republic, experienced a number of foreign invasions in connection with plans to build an inter-oceanic canal on its territory. In the 1940s Great Britain seized the Caribbean coast, in 1855–57 American mercenaries invaded Nicaragua, and their leader, W. Walker, was briefly president. After the defeat of the interventionists, General T. Martinez (1857–67) became president. Under him, the capital was moved to Managua. Before the beginning 20th century There was a struggle in the country between conservatives and liberals. The rule of the conservatives lasted until 1893, when the liberal president J. Celaya came to power. He introduced universal suffrage, separated church and state, promoted education and railroad construction, tried to limit the infiltration of American capital by developing ties with Britain, and began negotiations with Japan to build a canal. In 1909, the United States supported the Conservative uprising, landed troops in Nicaragua, and forced Zelaya’s resignation and the Conservative regime coming to power. Since 1912 American troops have occupied Nicaragua. The struggle against the occupying forces was led by the national hero A.S. Sandino (1895-1934). In 1933, American troops left Nicaragua, Sandino’s army was disarmed, and Sandino himself was killed in 1934 on the orders of A. Somoza, head of the National Guard. In 1936, Somoza carried out a coup d’état and established a military-police dictatorship. The reign of the Somoza dynasty (1936-79) was marked by repression against the opposition and a close alliance with the United States. Under the influence of the Cuban revolution in 1961, under the leadership of the Marxist Sandinista National Liberation Front (FSLN), an armed struggle began against the Somoza regime. In July 1979 the dictator was overthrown and a revolutionary government came to power. Under the leadership of the FSLN, a left-wing authoritarian regime was established, political freedoms were limited, a course was taken for the militarization and export of the revolution to neighboring states, the development of comprehensive ties with Cuba, the USSR and other socialist countries. In 1981, the conflict between the FSLN and the US-backed opposition escalated into an armed conflict that took on a regional dimension. The Contras, created with the help of the United States, fought against the Sandinista government until 1990. The failure of the economic course, combined with international pressure, forced the FSLN to sign peace agreements with the armed opposition in 1989 and hold free elections in February 1990. The Sandinistas lost the elections, a candidate was elected president opposition coalition. Barrios de Chamorro (1990-96), who pursued a policy of national reconciliation, demilitarization, democratization and economic recovery. The 1996 elections were won by the leader of the centre-right Liberal Alliance (LA) Arnoldo Alemán (1996-2001), who continued the course of economic liberalization and ensured the legal transfer of power to the liberal candidate in 2001. His rule was marked by rampant corruption and the weakness of the judiciary. In December 2003, the ex-president was sentenced to 20 years in prison for misappropriation of public funds, money laundering and other financial fraud. who continued to liberalize the economy and ensured a legitimate transfer of power to the Liberal candidate in 2001. His reign was marked by rampant corruption and a weak judiciary. In December 2003, the ex-president was sentenced to 20 years in prison for misappropriation of public funds, money laundering and other financial fraud. who continued to liberalize the economy and ensured a legitimate transfer of power to the Liberal candidate in 2001. His reign was marked by rampant corruption and a weak judiciary. In December 2003, the ex-president was sentenced to 20 years in prison for misappropriation of public funds, money laundering and other financial fraud.