Two lithic traditions distinguish Australia’s oldest prehistory. The first, called ” Core-tool and scraper Tradition ” (Core-tool and scraper Tradition), is characterized by artifacts obtained essentially from pebbles (choppers and chopping tools, nucleiform scrapers and splinters of varying sizes), exemplified by industry from the lower levels of the Lake Mungo site. Blades and splinters with a smooth edge appear about 20,000 years ago in the Land of Arnhem and are later known in New Guinea around 14,000 years ago. Human remains from this stage are known at Lake Mungo and Kow Swamp. Evidence of parietal art has been identified in Coonalda and Laura and dated to ca. 13,000 years ago. About 6000 years ago, a tradition, whose origins are not yet well documented, took over, called the “Tradition of small instruments” and characterized by a smaller instrument set, also obtained with often very accurate retouching by pressure (blades with folded back, tips, geometric microliths, foliaceous instruments). At the same time, boomerang and propeller) and artistic (wall paintings). Of the more recent cultures, the finds that are of particular interest are the polished stone axes, which, given their different typology, are sometimes considered as guiding fossils to distinguish the cultural phases that followed in the progressive population of the continent.
CULTURE: GENERAL INFORMATION
The British colonization of the late eighteenth century, on the one hand, brought European men, traditions, cultures, values to Australia and allowed a development of a Western matrix, on the other hand it gave way first to a tormented coexistence between aborigines and settlers, then to the problems connected with the links between the latter and the motherland. The twentieth century, on the other hand, coincided with the arrival of hundreds of thousands of people including Italians, Turks, Lebanese and Asians, a phenomenon that has definitively made this immense state the land of extraordinary multiculturalism. To further entangle the threads of this melting-pot ethnic influence, the strong influence of the American way of life has been added. One of the most important effects of these processes is undoubtedly the fact that even culturally the country boasts excellence in every field. In the figurative field, the artists of European origin, most influenced by the “Old” and “New” continent, have been joined, since the 1990s, by numerous Aboriginal exponents, a clear result of the most recent orientations aimed at revaluation and protection of indigenous culture. Many testimonies of Aboriginal art are present in the national sites protected by UNESCO. Those defined as “natural and cultural” are four: the Kakadu National Park (1981, 1987, 1992), the Willandra Lakes Region (1981), the National Parks of Western Tasmania (1982, 1989) and Uluru-Kata Tjuta National Park (1987, 1994); two are exclusively cultural: the Royal Exhibition Building and Carlton Gardens (2004) and the famous Sydney Opera House (2007) and the Prison Sites (2010). Remaining in the architectural field, it can be said that, in both the public and private spheres, the European and Western stylistic domain has been almost absolute. In the literary sphere, the rediscovery of “local” themes began in the early decades of the twentieth century, while prominent personalities, such as the European and Western stylistic domination was almost absolute. In the literary sphere, the rediscovery of “local” themes began in the early decades of the twentieth century, while prominent personalities, such as the European and Western stylistic domination was almost absolute. In the literary sphere, the rediscovery of “local” themes began in the early decades of the twentieth century, while prominent personalities, such as Patrick White, Nobel Prize for literature in 1973, have dotted the entire history of the country, often facilitated by the wide circulation of magazines and support initiatives. The same can be said for theater, cinema, dance, classical and light music (in the eighties and nineties rock band such as AC / DC and INXS have had enormous success, but famous names also include Nick Cave and the Bad Seeds and, recently, the pop phenomenon Kylie Minogue) and, above all, sport: Australians are at the highest level in this field and have won prestigious titles in numerous disciplines. In conclusion, it is not excessive to say that as a country located in Oceania according to elaineqho, Australia is undoubtedly one of the best examples in the world regarding the management of resources and the policies for the protection and development of culture: further proof of this is the institutions, with the ministries and the Australian Council in the lead, leading the dozens of libraries, museums, galleries, festivals in the area.