As a country located in Oceania according to itypeauto, Australia constitutes a federal state within the Commonwealth British; It is made up of 6 federated states (one of which is insular, Tasmania), in addition to the Northern Territory and the Federal District in which the capital is located and Jervis Bay. The islands Ashmore and Cartier, Macquarie and Lord Howe (which belongs to the state of New South Wales) are part of the federation, with the qualification of “internal territories”; on the other hand, Norfolk Island, the Coral Sea Islands, the Heard and McDonald Islands, the Cocos or Keeling and Christmas Islands and the Australian Antarctic Territory are considered “external territories”. Under the Constitution promulgated in 1901, the head of state is the sovereign of the United Kingdom who is represented by a governor general. Executive power is exercised by the Federal Executive Council, chaired by the Prime Minister and accountable to the Federal Parliament,direct suffrage, respectively for 6 and 3 years. Each State has its own Parliament and its own government (the Northern Territory is administered directly by the central government); The judicial system is based on the Common Law British; even if with reservations, international standards are implemented. Justice is administered, at its highest level, by the High Court, a federal court that has the power to accept appeals against state Supreme Courts, on which the lower courts present in individual states depend. Federal defense is entrusted to traditional weapons (army, navy, air force); the draft is voluntary, and can be carried out from the age of 17 (with family consent). Women can serve in supportive and non-combat roles. The school system, centralized and nationalized in 1872, is by law secular and compulsory from 6 to 15 years of age (16 in Tasmania). Pre-primary education, both public and private, is expanding in all States and Territories; L’ primary education, which lasts 6 years, includes four types of school: urban schools, dependent on the education department of each state; rural schools; the schools gathered, (frequent in rural areas, and run by various teachers); correspondence schools (which use technology to cover the great distances of the country). Secondary education, which lasts 6 years, includes a final exam. There are also technical, commercial, architecture schools and schools (secondary education, which lasts 6 years, includes a final exam. There are also technical, commercial, architecture schools and schools (secondary education, which lasts 6 years, includes a final exam. There are also technical, commercial, architecture schools and schools (Teacher’s colleges) specific to teaching preparation. Higher education, lasting 4-5 years, is given in the country’s numerous universities, largely funded by the federal government; the main sites are those of Adelaide (1874), Melbourne (1853), New South Wales (1948), Queensland (1909), Sydney (1850) and Canberra (the Australian National University, 1946).
ECONOMY: AGRICULTURE, FORESTRY, LIVESTOCK AND FISHING
The primary sector (which participates for just under 3% in the formation of GDP and employs 3.6% of the workforce) has undergone a contraction in recent decades and the average age of workers in the sector has increased (indicating a move away from young people from the agricultural world), however it remains the basis of the Australian economic system; we are also witnessing the decline of small family-run businesses in the country. Agriculture is productive and diversified, although dependent on climatic conditions. The cultivated area is very limited (less than 7% of the entire national territory), given the large predominance of arid and semi-arid areas, as well as the scarce possibility of irrigation; nevertheless, it fully covers domestic needs and contributes significantly to exports. The production of cereals is abundant (the country is in fact the third largest exporter in the world): wheat (of which it is among the first producers) is the main crop, present throughout the country and especially on the internal side of the Great Dividing Range. and in Victoria, as well as in the Perth area; however, it is affected by the frequent unfavorable years and the yields are generally quite low. Other cereals are oats, barley (used for feed and to produce malt) and rye, grown alternately with forage or plants such as peas and lupins, as well as rice, corn and sorghum. Horticulture is developed, practiced in the vicinity of cities especially by Italians, who also cultivate a large part of the vines (especially in the states of Victoria and South Australia; production is growing and the fruit is mainly used for wine production) and citrus fruits that now yield abundant harvests. Fruit cultivation is also widespread, both tropical (banana trees and pineapples, especially in Queensland), and temperate (apples, pears, etc., mainly in Tasmania and Victoria). Sugar cane ranks first among the industrial crops, which finds its best areas again in Queensland. Cotton (Queensland and New South Wales) and flax (Queensland, New South Wales and Victoria) are also grown; tobacco is also widespread, grown in the same states. § Forest exploitation, given the poverty of the heritage, is limited. Among the essences eucalyptus, acacias and casuarine, but a 2000 report shows that in the last years of the twentieth century more than one million hectares of land was deforested. § Breeding has always been one of Australia’s prevailing businesses. It is still essential today for the country’s economy, especially the traditional sheep one, also because Australia has vast areas of grass and permanent pasture; but, in addition to the wool (of which Australia is the largest producer in the world) obtained from the highly prized merino sheep and requested by English factories since the first colonization of the country, sheep farming is of interest for the meat, processed in large canning industries. The main belts of breeding are the Great Artesian Basin and the Darling River basin, where the artesian wells are exploited for watering, and the highlands of the Great Dividing Range. Cattle breeding is also important today, which, given the scarcity of suitable spaces, is becoming more intensive: it gives rise to a fair export of frozen meat. § On the other hand, fishing is a secondary activity, mainly aimed at capturing valuable species, such as oysters and lobsters.